MAIA (Macular Integrity Assessment)

The New Frontier of Microperimetry

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MAIA (Macular Integrity Assessment)

maiaMAIA represents the latest advance in confocal microperimetry. Retinal images are acquired by Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO). An eye tracker allows accurate, real-time, compensation of eye movements. Luminance levels are compliant with existing standards (1000 asb.).

MAIA is highly automated, very easy to use, non mydriatic and combines the best aspects of its predecessors. Similarly to Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP), MAIA measures light sensitivity of the retina by projecting Goldmann III stimuli over different retinal locations within the field of view. The main difference and great advantage over SAP is that retinal sensitivity is measured while simultaneously imaging the retina in real time.

Retinal images, created by SLO technology, are processed by an eye tracker to calculate and compensate eye shifts (fixation losses) occurring during visual field measurement, in both physiological and pathological conditions. Fixation analysis is the second, fundamental, outcome of of the Maia eye tracker.

MAIA performs different types of microperimetry tests with supra and full-threshold strategies, and follow-up test to monitor functional progression. Each exam provides a measure of retinal sensitivity and fixation analysis (stability and position of the Preferred Retinal Locus). The MAIA sensitivity scale is 0 to 36 dB.

Benefits Features
Sensitive to functional changes due to macular pathologies even in the early stages maia-benefits-features-arrow 36 dB measurement range, 25 Hz eye tracker, 4 asb background, normative intervals
Easy interpretation maia-benefits-features-arrow Comparison with normative intervals and Normal – Suspect – Abnormal indicators
Patient comfort maia-benefits-features-arrow Test can be paused and automatically restarted at any time
Facilitates correct diagnostic decision maia-benefits-features-arrow Overlay of structural and functional information
Highly repeatable maia-benefits-features-arrow 25 Hz eye tracking + high resolution confocal imaging
High quality imaging maia-benefits-features-arrow Confocal SLO imaging (25 microns optical resolution)


Microperimetry is a technology that allows concurrent analysis of structural and functional aspects of the retina. It combines fundus imaging, retinal sensitivity mapping and fixation analysis in one exam and has been used over a decade as a powerful tool to detect, describe and follow-up pathologies affecting the macular area. Its great advantage is the ability to track patients’ fixation activity while measuring visual field, hence eliminating errors caused by fixation losses.

Fixation assessment is unique to microperimetry and ensures correlation between microperimetric outcomes and subjective perception of visual quality.


Benefits of MAIA:

  • Simple to use, patients can be tested in less than 3 minutes per eye
  • By comparing macular indexes in patients with and without retinal pathologies, MAIA is very effective at measuring functional changes due to disease and to treatment.
  • Helps monitoring the course of retinal diseases and the efficacy of treatment
  • Effectively combines a linear SLO system and a fundus controlled perimetric exam, providing clear and detailed retinal images
  • New Eye Tracker Alarm for the MAIA

The new MAIA software version 1.5.3 includes the innovative “Eye Tracker Alarm,” a feature that advises the operator when the patient is not properly following the MAIA test. This feature reduces even more the operator’s involvement during screening.


Which diseases can be evaluated with MAIA

MAIA is used to functionally characterize and monitor a variety of macular pathologies, including for example:

  • Age related macular degeneration
  • Diabetic macular edema and retinopathy
  • Macular puckers
  • Macular holes
  • Central serous retinopathy
  • Stargardt’s disease
  • Choroideraemia
  • Central retinal vein occlusion
  • Macular telangiectasia
  • Retinitis pigmentosa

Technical Specifications

Fundus imaging
Line scanning laser ophthalmoscope Field of view 36° x 36°
Digital camera resolution 1024 x 1024 pixel
Optical resolution on the retina 25 microns
Optical source: infrared super luminescent diode 850 nm
Imaging speed 25 fps
Working distance 33 mm


Fundus Perimetry
Standard macular test 10°
Field of view for macular perimetry 20° x 20°
Tracking speed 25 Hz
Stimuli size Goldman III
Background luminance 4 asb
Stimuli dynamic range 36 dB
Maximum luminance 1000 asb


Other Features
Non mydriatic operation (minimum pupil diameter: 2.5 mm)
Auto-focus (-15D to +10D)
Automatic OD/OS recognition


Unit size W 348 x H 580 x D 600 mm (13.7 x 22.8 x 23.6 in)
Unit weight 23 kg (50.7 lbs)


Power Requirement
Voltage 100-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz, fuse 3.15 A (T type)
Power consumption 300 VA


Laser classification
Class I laser product conforming with 60825-1 IEC:2007


Power cord, push-button, spare fuses, operating manual, dust cover, front lens cap, silicon head-rest, eye occluder

Clinical Papers

‘Bilateral Eccentric Vision Training on Pseudovitelliform Dystrophy with Microperimetry Biofeedback’

A case report describing visual rehabilitation on both eyes by means of PRL relocation with MAIA microperimetry (Centervue, Padova, Italy), using biofeedback training technology, in a patient diagnosed with adult pseudovitelliform dystrophy.

BMJ Case Reports 2015 – 9 January 2015


‘Reliability and Intersession Agreement of Microperimetric and Fixation Measurements Obtained with a New Microperimeter in Normal Eyes

A study intended to evaluate the reliability and intersession agreement of measurements of retinal sensitivity as well as of the fixation pattern obtained in healthy eyes with MAIA microperimeter, a device that integrates the mechanism of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) with the static perimetry.

Current Eye Research – March 2016


Microperimetry of Nascent Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

A study intended to determine the microperimetric retinal sensitivity in areas with nascent geographic atrophy (nGA) compared with other pathological features in eyes with intermediate AMD. Assessment of retinal sensitivity to increment luminance was performed using the Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA, CenterVue, Padova, Italy) microperimeter.

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science – January 2015


Intrasession Test–Retest Variability of Microperimetry in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

A study intended to determine the intrasession test-retest variability of microperimetry in participants with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All participants underwent microperimetric examination using the Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA; CenterVue – Padova, Italy) microperimeter

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science – November 2013


Correlation between the Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness Measured with Cirrus Hd-Oct and Macular Visual Field Sensitivity Measured with Microperimetry

The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between the macular visual field (VF) mean sensitivity and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCA) thicknesses. To determine the static threshold perimetry MAIA microperimeter was used.

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science – April 2013


Preferred Retinal Locus Profile During Prolonged Fixation Attempts

The retinal area or location used during any fixation attempt defines the preferred retinal locus (PRL). It is presumed that during prolonged fixation attempts there may be various representative reference points within the PRL area. This study aims to clarify this presumption.

Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology – October 2015


Dr. Kaushal highlights Maia benefits

Dr. Kaushal, co-director of Institute for Retinal and Macular Diseases, explains his experience with MAIA and the impact of this Microperimeter on his clinic, in the management of patients affected by AMD and diabetic retinopathy.

Maia Microperimeter general presentation

MAIA (Macular Integrity Assessment) is a new generation microperimeter, providing functional assessment of pathologies affecting the center of the retina. Video of instrument Presentation, showing how exames are typically performed.

Dr. Licata presents Visual Rehabilitation with Maia in the Low Vision Department of the De Gironcoli Hospital, Conegliano, Italy

Maia microperimeter performs visual rehabilitation using biofeedback, training patients to use an eccentric PRL, instead of the fovea. This is a testimonial video reporting some interesting cases of patients that have benefited from Maia rehab.


Maia catalog 2013 US
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Maia catalog 2013
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Maia handbook 2015
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Maia leaf behind
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