Fundus Automated Perimetry

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compassCompass is the first Fundus Automated perimeter capable of performing standard 24-2 visual field testing, delivering TrueColor confocal images at the same time.

COMPASS is a scanning ophthalmoscope combined with an automatic perimeter that provides confocal images of the retina, as well as measurements of retinal threshold sensitivity, under non-mydriatic conditions.

Key Features

  • Extreme ease of use: patient auto-sensing, auto-alignement, auto-focus
  • Auto flash adjustment, auto-capture
  • Compact & clean design
  • High quality images
  • Minimal training required
  • No additional PC required
  • Touch-screen operation
  • Internet-native
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Fundus Automated Perimetry

Fundus automated perimetry is a technique that images the retina during visual field testing, enabling a correlation to be made between visual function and retinal structure.1

Advantages of Fundus Automated Perimetry over Standard Automated Perimetry include the possibility to measure sensitivity at specific retinal locations, higher accuracy thanks to retinal-tracking based compensation of eye movements and the simultaneous assessment of function (expressed by retinal sensitivity) and structure (images of the ONH, of the RNFL and of the retina). Fundus Automated Perimetry provides a simultaneous, quantitative assessment of fixation characteristics.

Use of Fundus Automated Perimetry in the clinical management of glaucoma has been limited so far, as available systems were lacking compliance with the standards of automated perimetry. COMPASS overcomes such limitations and brings visual field analysis to the next level!

In particular COMPASS, for the first time, extends field coverage to 30° + 30° and employs luminance parameters and a sensitivity scale as used in standard automated perimetry.

1 Crossland et al., 2012 2Also referred as “microperimetry”


  • High-resolution TrueColor Confocal Imaging of the ONH, of the RNFL and of central retina
  • Combined structure and function analysis
  • High test – retest repeatability thanks to the Real Time Retinal Tracking, that actively compensates eye movements
  • Reliable automated follow up with combined structure-function progression analysis
  • Comprehensive printout
  • Operator friendly: no trials lens required, automatic refractive correction
  • More patient comfort: test can be suspended at any time without data loss

Compatibility to standard 24-2 visual field testing

As a perimeter, the system offers full compatibility with standard 24-2 visual field testing and contains an age-matched database of retinal sensitivity in normal subjects.

Technical Specifications

Fundus Perimetry
Projection field 30° (radius)
Background luminance 31.4 asb
Maximum luminance 10000 asb
Dynamic range 0 – 50 dB
Stimulus size Goldmann III (26”)
Stimulus duration 200 ms
Threshold tests 24-2, 10-2
Fixation control 25 Hz automated retinal Tracking
Foveal threshold testing
Automatic pupil measurement


Fundus Imaging
Field of view 60° (diameter)
Sensor resolution 5 Mpixel (2592×1944)
Light source infrared (825-870 nm) and white LED (440-650 nm)
Imaging modalities color, infrared, red-free
Resolution 17 microns


Weight 25 Kg
Size H 620 X W 590 X D 360 mm


Electrical requirements
Power 100-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz
Consumption 80 W


Other Features
Automatic operation auto-alignment, autofocus, auto-retinal tracking, auto-pupil tracking, auto-exposure, auto-capture
Non-mydriatic operation minimum pupil size 3 mm
Working distance 28 mm
Auto-focus range -12D to +15D
Fixation target programmable, internal
User interface Tablet multi-touch screen
Connectivity Ethernet
Printer any printer compatible with Tablet
Hard disk SSD, 240 GB

Clinical Papers

“Compass: Clinical Evaluation of a New Instrument for the Diagnosis of Glaucoma”

Evaluation of Compass, a new instrument for glaucoma screening and diagnosis that combines scanning ophthalmoscopy, automated perimetry, and eye tracking.

PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122157 March 25, 2015

Compatibility to standard 24-2 visual field testing
As a perimeter, the system offers full compatibility with standard 24-2 visual field testing and contains an age-matched database of retinal sensitivity in normal subjects.

Superior quality of color and red-free images
As a retinal imager, COMPASS uses a confocal optical system, similarly to SLO systems, to capture TrueColor images and to provide Red-free images of superior quality. In addition, a high resolution live image of the retina obtained using infrared illumination is available throughout the test.

Retinal Tracking
Retinal tracking is at the heart of Fundus Automated Perimetry.

Infrared images, acquired at the rate of 25 images per second, allow for continuous, automated, tracking of eye movements. Determination of eye movements yields to Fixation Analysis, where the location of the functional site of fixation and its stability are computed.

Fixation analysis is unique to Fundus Automated Perimetry. Retinal tracking also yields to active compensation of fixation losses, with perimetric stimuli being automatically re-positioned prior to projection based on the current eye position. This mechanism is critical to ensure accurate correlation between function (i.e. retinal threshold values) and structure (retinal appearance).

Compensation of eye movements takes place before and during the projection of a certain stimulus. In absence of this mechanism, a normal 2-3 degrees shift in eye position occurring at the time of projection of a certain stimulus would easily produce an artifact in VF results, with a wrong sensitivity being reported at that specific location.

Color confocal imaging
SLO systems are superior to conventional fundus cameras in many ways, as they exploit a confocal imaging principle, which limits the effect of backscattered light from deeper layers and provides enhanced image quality in terms of contrast and resolution. Another major advantage of SLO systems is that they operate with much smaller pupils than non-confocal instruments.

At the same time, though, SLO systems do not provide color images, as they typically employ monochromatic laser sources, resulting in black and white or pseudo-color images. Differently from existing SLO systems, Compass uses a white light LED instead of monochromatic lasers, hence providing TrueColor images and offering high fidelity to real retinal appearance. Compass images offer:

  • no need for pupil dilation (pupil down to 3 mm)
  • Wide field (60° degrees in a single capture)
  • excellent resolution, contrast and sharpness
  • high quality even in presence of media opacities, such as cataract
  • optimized exposure of the ONH

Introducing Fundus Automated Perimetry (FAP)

Dr. Fogagnolo describes the combined structure-function analysis and high reliability of the new COMPASS Fundus Automated Perimeter vs. the current standard, highlighting the importance of Real Time retinal tracking.

Retinal Tracking Perimetry: Taking the Doubt out of Visual Field Analysis

Ike Ahmed, MD, illustrates how the new COMPASS Fundus Automated Perimeter with Real-Time Retinal Tracking improves reliability in visual field testing, explaining how decreasing perimetry test-retest variability could improve earlier detection of pathology progression.

Introducing COMPASS – The first Fundus Automated Perimeter

Introduction to COMPASS (US version): the first device that, combining standard 24-2 Visual Field testing and TrueColor Confocal imaging of the fundus, allows simultaneous assessment of structure and function. COMPASS ensures high accuracy performances thanks to its Real Time Retinal Tracking.

COMPASS: User Experiences – Ike K. Ahmed, MD

Ike K. Ahmed, MD, reviews how the COMPASS Fundus Automated Perimeter enables structure and function analysis in the management of glaucoma.

COMPASS: User Experiences – Murray Fingeret, OD, FAAO

Murray Fingeret, OD, FAAO, reports his experience with COMPASS Fundus Automated Perimeter

Video Education: Visual Field Talk – Ike K. Ahmed

Ike K. Ahmed, MD, introduces the COMPASS Fundus Perimeter, an innovative visual field testing device that adds true-color confocal images of the ONH and fundus to standard 24-2 visual fields. Dr. Ahmed provides comparisons between COMPASS perimetry, OCT and traditional visual field tests, explaining


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